Maslow’s need hierarchy theory, original proposed in 1943, is the most popular theory of motivation in the management and Organizational Behavior literature. He studied the healthiest 1% of the college student population, because “the study of crippled, stunted, immature, and unhealthy specimens can yield only a cripple psychology and a cripple philosophy”.
The five levels of need are:
- physiological needsair, water, food, clothing and shelter
- safety needspersonal security, finacial security, health and well-being
safety net against accidents/illness/aftermath
- love and belongingfriendship, intimacy, family
it may override safety need as witnessed in abusive family
a sense of belonging and acceptance among social groups, like clubs, co-workers, religious groups, professional groups
be accepted and valued by others, gain recognition
low self-esteem: seek status, attention, fame or glory, need respect from others, but these won’t help build self-esteem until they accept themselves internally
high self-esteem: seek for strength, competence,mastery, self-confidence, independence, and freedom
- self-actualization/self-transcendenceaccomplish everything he can, e.g.: painting, inventions
become the most he can be, e.g.: ideal parent
giving himself to some higher goal beyond oneself, part of “a greater good”
- M. A. Wahba and L. G. Bridwell (1976): little evidence for the ranking of needs. They can be equally important, depending on age, culture, society development/ stability.
- sex is listed in 1, which neglects the emotional, famillial, and evolutionary implication
- 1-3 are defiency needs, 4-5 are growths needs
- a deprivation may establish a dominance within his hierarchy of needs; conversely, a gratification of need will activate.
- A long deprivation of a given need may turn him to other needs
- some proposed dual-level hierarchy: maintenace needs(1-2),growth needs(3-5)
Carl Rogers, who advocated client-centered therapy and student-centered learning, said,
Every human being, with no exception, for the mere fact to be it, is worthy of unconditional respect of everybody else; he deserves to esteem himself and to be esteemed